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Risk and Safety Statements

Risk and Safety Statements, also known as R/S statements, R/S numbers, R/S phrases, and R/S sentences, is a system of hazard codes and phrases for labeling dangerous chemicals and compounds. The R/S statement of a compound consists of a risk part (R) and a safety part (S), each followed by a combination of numbers. Each number corresponds to a phrase. The phrase corresponding to the letter/number combination has the same meaning in different languages

Risk phrases

R-phrases (short for Risk Phrases) are defined in Annex III of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Nature of special risks attributed to dangerous substances and preparations. The list was consolidated and republished inDirective 2001/59/EC, and these risk phrases are used internationally, not just in Europe, and there is an ongoing effort towards complete international harmonization.

List of Risk phrases

Code Phrase
R1 Explosive when dry
R2 Risk of explosion by shock, friction, fire or other sources of ignition
R3 Extreme risk of explosion by shock, friction, fire or other sources of ignition
R4 Forms very sensitive explosive metallic compounds
R5 Heating may cause an explosion
R6 Explosive with or without contact with air
R7 May cause fire
R8 Contact with combustible material may cause fire
R9 Explosive when mixed with combustible material
R10 Flammable
R11 Highly flammable
R12 Extremely flammable
R14 Reacts violently with water
R15 Contact with water liberates extremely flammable gases
R16 Explosive when mixed with oxidising substances
R17 Spontaneously flammable in air
R18 In use, may form flammable/explosive vapour-air mixture
R19 May form explosive peroxides
R20 Harmful by inhalation
R21 Harmful in contact with skin
R22 Harmful if swallowed
R23 Toxic by inhalation
R24 Toxic in contact with skin
R25 Toxic if swallowed
R26 Very toxic by inhalation
R27 Very toxic in contact with skin
R28 Very toxic if swallowed
R29 Contact with water liberates toxic gas.
R30 Can become highly flammable in use
R31 Contact with acids liberates toxic gas
R32 Contact with acids liberates very toxic gas
R33 Danger of cumulative effects
R34 Causes burns
R35 Causes severe burns
R36 Irritating to eyes
R37 Irritating to respiratory system
R38 Irritating to skin
R39 Danger of very serious irreversible effects
R40 Limited evidence of a carcinogenic effect
R41 Risk of serious damage to eyes
R42 May cause sensitisation by inhalation
R43 May cause sensitisation by skin contact
R44 Risk of explosion if heated under confinement
R45 May cause cancer
R46 May cause inheritable genetic damage
R48 Danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure
R49 May cause cancer by inhalation
R50 Very toxic to aquatic organisms
R51 Toxic to aquatic organisms
R52 Harmful to aquatic organisms
R53 May cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment
R54 Toxic to flora
R55 Toxic to fauna
R56 Toxic to soil organisms
R57 Toxic to bees
R58 May cause long-term adverse effects in the environment
R59 Dangerous for the ozone layer
R60 May impair fertility
R61 May cause harm to the unborn child
R62 Possible risk of impaired fertility
R63 Possible risk of harm to the unborn child
R64 May cause harm to breast-fed babies
R65 Harmful: may cause lung damage if swallowed
R66 Repeated exposure may cause skin dryness or cracking
R67 Vapours may cause drowsiness and dizziness
R68 Possible risk of irreversible effects
R14/15 Reacts violently with water, liberating extremely flammable gases
R15/29 Contact with water liberates toxic, extremely flammable gases
R14/15/29 Reacts violently with water, liberating toxic, extremely flammable gases
R20/21 Harmful by inhalation and in contact with skin
R20/22 Harmful by inhalation and if swallowed
R20/21/22 Harmful by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed
R21/22 Harmful in contact with skin and if swallowed
R23/24 Toxic by inhalation and in contact with skin
R23/25 Toxic by inhalation and if swallowed
R23/24/25 Toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed
R24/25 Toxic in contact with skin and if swallowed
R26/27 Very toxic by inhalation and in contact with skin
R26/28 Very toxic by inhalation and if swallowed
R26/27/28 Very toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed
R27/28 Very toxic in contact with skin and if swallowed
R36/37 Irritating to eyes and respiratory system
R36/38 Irritating to eyes and skin
R36/37/38 Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin
R37/38 Irritating to respiratory system and skin
R39/23 Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation
R39/24 Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects in contact with skin
R39/25 Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects if swallowed
R39/23/24 Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation and in contact with skin
R39/23/25 Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation and if swallowed
R39/24/25 Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects in contact with skin and if swallowed
R39/23/24/25 Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed
R39/26 Very Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation
R39/27 Very Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects in contact with skin
R39/28 Very Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects if swallowed
R39/26/27 Very Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation and in contact with skin
R39/26/28 Very Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation and if swallowed
R39/27/28 Very Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects in contact with skin and if swallowed
R39/26/27/28 Very Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed
R42/43 May cause sensitization by inhalation and skin contact
R45/46 May cause cancer and heritable genetic damage
R48/20 Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation
R48/21 Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure in contact with skin
R48/22 Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure if swallowed
R48/20/21 Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and in contact with skin
R48/20/22 Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and if swallowed
R48/21/22 Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure in contact with skin and if swallowed
R48/20/21/22 Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed
R48/23 Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation
R48/24 Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure in contact with skin
R48/25 Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure if swallowed
R48/23/24 Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and in contact with skin
R48/23/25 Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and if swallowed
R48/24/25 Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure in contact with skin and if swallowed
R48/23/24/25 Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed
R50/53 Very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment
R51/53 Toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment
R52/53 Harmful to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment
R68/20 Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects through inhalation
R68/21 Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects in contact with skin
R68/22 Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects if swallowed
R68/20/21 Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects through inhalation and in contact with skin
R68/20/22 Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects through inhalation and if swallowed
R68/21/22 Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects in contact with skin and if swallowed
R68/20/21/22 Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects through inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed

Safety Phrases (S)

S-phrases are defined in Annex IV of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Safety advice concerning dangerous substances and preparations. The list was consolidated and republished in Directive 2001/59/EC, where translations into other EU languages may be found. The list was subsequently updated and republished in Directive 2006/102/EC, and these safety phrases are used internationally and not just in Europe, and there is an ongoing effort towards complete international harmonization.

List of Safety phrases

Code Phrase
S1 Keep locked up
S2 Keep out of the reach of children
S3 Keep in a cool place
S4 Keep away from living quarters
S5 Keep contents under ... (appropriate liquid to be specified by the manufacturer)
S6 Keep under ... (inert gas to be specified by the manufacturer)
S7 Keep container tightly closed
S8 Keep container dry
S9 Keep container in a well-ventilated place
S10 Keep contents wet
S11 not specified
S12 Do not keep the container sealed
S13 Keep away from food, drink and animal foodstuffs
S14 Keep away from ... (incompatible materials to be indicated by the manufacturer)
S15 Keep away from heat
S16 Keep away from sources of ignition - No smoking
S17 Keep away from combustible material
S18 Handle and open container with care
S20 When using do not eat or drink
S21 When using do not smoke
S22 Do not breathe dust
S23 Do not breathe gas/fumes/vapour/spray (appropriate wording to be specified by the manufacturer)
S24 Avoid contact with skin
S25 Avoid contact with eyes
S26 In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice
S27 Take off immediately all contaminated clothing
S28 After contact with skin, wash immediately with plenty of ... (to be specified by the manufacturer)
S29 Do not empty into drains
S30 Never add water to this product
S33 Take precautionary measures against static discharges
S35 This material and its container must be disposed of in a safe way
S36 Wear suitable protective clothing
S37 Wear suitable gloves
S38 In case of insufficient ventilation wear suitable respiratory equipment
S39 Wear eye/face protection
S40 To clean the floor and all objects contaminated by this material use ... (to be specified by the manufacturer)
S41 In case of fire and/or explosion do not breathe fumes
S42 During fumigation/spraying wear suitable respiratory equipment (appropriate wording to be specified by the manufacturer)
S43 In case of fire use ... (indicate in the space the precise type of fire-fighting equipment. If water increases the risk add - Never use water)
S45 In case of accident or if you feel unwell seek medical advice immediately (show the label where possible)
S46 If swallowed, seek medical advice immediately and show this container or label
S47 Keep at temperature not exceeding ... °C (to be specified by the manufacturer)
S48 Keep wet with ... (appropriate material to be specified by the manufacturer)
S49 Keep only in the original container
S50 Do not mix with ... (to be specified by the manufacturer)
S51 Use only in well-ventilated areas
S52 Not recommended for interior use on large surface areas
S53 Avoid exposure - obtain special instructions before use
S56 Dispose of this material and its container at hazardous or special waste collection point
S57 Use appropriate containment to avoid environmental contamination
S59 Refer to manufacturer/supplier for information on recovery/recycling
S60 This material and its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste
S61 Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions/safety data sheet
S62 If swallowed, do not induce vomiting: seek medical advice immediately and show this container or label where possible
S63 In case of accident by inhalation: remove casualty to fresh air and keep at rest
S64 If swallowed, rinse mouth with water (only if the person is conscious)
S1/2 Keep locked up and out of the reach of children
S3/7 Keep container tightly closed in a cool place
S3/7/9 Keep container tightly closed in a cool, well-ventilated place
S3/9/14 Keep in a cool, well-ventilated place away from ... (incompatible materials to be indicated by the manufacturer)
S3/9/14/49 Keep only in the original container in a cool, well-ventilated place away from ... (incompatible materials to be indicated by the manufacturer)
S3/9/49 Keep only in the original container in a cool, well-ventilated place
S3/14 Keep in a cool place away from ... (incompatible materials to be indicated by the manufacturer)
S7/8 Keep container tightly closed and dry
S7/9 Keep container tightly closed and in a well-ventilated place
S7/47 Keep container tightly closed and at temperature not exceeding ... °C (to be specified by the manufacturer)
S8/10 Keep container wet, but keep the contents dry
S20/21 When using do not eat, drink or smoke
S24/25 Avoid contact with skin and eyes
S27/28 After contact with skin, take off immediately all contaminated clothing, and wash immediately with plenty of ... (to be specified by the manufacturer)
S29/35 Do not empty into drains; dispose of this material and its container in a safe way
S29/56 Do not empty into drains, dispose of this material and its container at hazardous or special waste collection point
S36/37 Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves
S36/37/39 Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection
S36/39 Wear suitable protective clothing and eye/face protection
S37/39 Wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection
S47/49 Keep only in the original container at temperature not exceeding ... °C (to be specified by the manufacturer)

Note: Missing R-numbers or S-numbers indicate phrases that have been deleted or replaced by other phrases.

Hazard Symbols PDF Download

Reference

1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Risk_and_Safety_Statements

2. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/homepage.html